- Series Information
- The Oxford Handbook of Prisons and Imprisonment
- List of Contributors
- The Imprisonment Boom of the Late Twentieth Century: Past, Present, and Future
- Who Goes to Prison?
- Mass Incarceration and Conditions of Confinement
- Exploring Imprisonment across Cross-National Contexts
- Theories of Mass Incarceration
- Subcultural Adaptations to Incarceration
- The Real Gangbanging Is in Prison
- Women in Prison
- Impact of Incarceration on Families and Communities
- The Two Cultures: Correctional Officers and Key Differences in Institutional Climate
- Measuring and Explaining Inmate Misconduct
- Prison Riots
- Drugs and Prisons
- A General Model of Harm in Correctional Settings
- Understanding the Contours of Prison Disciplinary Procedures
- The Effects of Administrative Segregation: A Lesson in Knowledge Cumulation
- A Comparison of British and American Policies for Managing Dangerous Prisoners: A Question of Legitimacy
- Adult Offender Assessment and Classification in Custodial Settings
- Principles of Effective Intervention with Incarcerated Offenders
- Employment and Vocation Programs in Prison
- Treating Sex Offenders in Prison
- The Multiple Faces of Reentry
- Implementing Prison-based Treatment Programs
- Preventing Suicide in Detention and Correctional Facilities
- Offenders with Mental Illness in Prison
- The Problem of Incarcerating Juveniles with Adults
- The Effect of Prisons on Crime
- Private Prisons in a New Environment
- Policy and Program Innovations in Prisons
- Useful versus Harmful Prison Policies
Abstract and Keywords
This essay summarizes the literature regarding the principles of effective correctional programming-offender risk, needs, and responsivity (RNR)-and the contribution of these principles to establishing “what works” in correctional rehabilitation. Origins of the rehabilitative ideal are reviewed, followed by its progress through the 1960s and 1970s, including the near-fatal blow dealt by Martinson in the mid-1970s. The research response to Martinson is discussed in conjunction with the role of meta-analyses in resuscitating the rehabilitative ideal and developing the RNR principles. Issues surrounding effective prison treatment programs are presented followed by descriptions of several exemplary institutional treatment programs currently in use. Next steps for research and practice in the area are also reviewed.
Keywords: principles of effective intervention, correctional programming, offender risk, needs, responsivity, correctional rehabilitation, rehabilitative ideal, meta-analysis, institutional treatment programs, RNR
Claire Goggin PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at St. Thomas University, Fredericton, New Brunswick where she teaches undergraduate courses in research methods and statistics, corrections, and criminal behavior. Research interests include correctional program evaluation, including the effects of imprisonment; empirical research methodologies and statistics, particularly meta-analysis; and knowledge cumulation and transfer. Recent projects include an examination of inscription practices in selected scientific disciplines; a meta-analysis of the effects of imprisonment on offender recidivism and emotional well-being; an examination of the relationship between rates of homicide and capital punishment in Canada between 1920–1949; and a prospective study of the socialization process among police officers.
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