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date: 11 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter is from the forthcoming The Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing edited by Rafael Calvo, Sidney K. D'Mello, Jonathan Gratch, and Arvid Kappas. A virtual character’s expressions of emotions may significantly enhance human-machine interaction. To give virtual characters the ability to display emotions, they should be endowed with a lexicon of facial expressions that convey emotional meanings in conversational settings. In this chapter, we explore research works highlighting different methodologies both to identify the morphological and dynamic characteristics of emotional facial expressions and to measure the effects of the emotional expressions on the user’s perception during human-machine interaction.

Keywords: embodied conversational agent (ECA), nonverbal behavior, stereotypical expression, lexicon

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