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date: 27 February 2021

Abstract and Keywords

In this chapter, the ecclesiological implications of Lutheran orthodoxy, pietism, and Enlightenment theology are explored. The era between 1600 and 1800 was marked by confessionalization—on the Protestant as well as the Catholic side, the establishment of separate national churches, and major shifts in theological method. The doctrine of the church largely developed into a topic of controversy, externally and internally. Even if none of the main currents of the period had ecclesiology and sacramental theology as primary concerns, crucial changes occurred here: The objectivized and doctrinalized concept of orthodoxy was succeeded by individualizing pietism, which in turn was challenged by rationalizing approaches. Pietism and Enlightenment theology are examples of efforts to reflect ecclesiologically within a new context, responding to emerging “modern” ideas.

Keywords: Lutheran orthodoxy, pietism, Enlightenment theology, Kantian criticism, confessionalism, confessionalization, church as visible or invisible, individualism, private religion and freedom

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