Abstract and Keywords
This chapter is an analytic account of Italian emigration and immigration between 1861 and the present. After describing the economic and demographic characteristics of emigrants, it analyzes the causes and effects of their migrations. It explores the consequences of the two main waves of Italian emigration (before 1914 and after 1945) for those left behind, and reckons that in the long run, emigration accounted for 4-5% of the growth in GDP per capita, with the South benefiting considerably more than the North. The chapter also describes the impact of recent immigration on those in residence in Italy, with a particular focus on the links with the economic activity, the labor market, the balance of payments, crime and public opinion, on the other.
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