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date: 16 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter makes the claim that culture can be and is used interchangeably with racial and ethnic identity and contends that these are the psychosocial manifestations of race and ethnicity, respectively. It begins with a discussion of identity development and the separation of personal and social identity into relatively independent strands of research, each with its own set of theoretical formulations. Several definitions of culture, race, ethnicity, racial identity, and ethnic identity are reviewed, and the chapter discusses how Black culture is used in both popular and academic discourse, in support of the contention of interchangeability. Racial and ethnic identity are shown to be related to cultural outcomes and dependent on culture, thus challenging the notion that racial and ethnic identity are developmental constructs and suggesting that strong evidence supports an attitudinal interpretation of both of these constructs. The chapter concludes with suggestions for the future, more precise use, definition, and operationalization of these constructs.

Keywords: Culture, ethnicity, ethnic identity, race, racial identity

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