- The Oxford Handbook of Identity Development
- About the Editors
- The Field of Identity Development Needs an Identity: An Introduction to The Oxford Handbook of Identity Development
- Theoretical Foundations of Identity
- Gendered Narrative Voices: Sociocultural and Feminist Approaches to Emerging Identity in Childhood and Adolescence
- Identity Development from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: What We Know and (Especially) Don’t Know
- Identity Development Through Adulthood: The Move Toward “Wholeness”
- Three Strands of Identity Development Across the Human Life Course: Reading Erik Erikson in Full
- The Identity Statuses: Strengths of a Person-Centered Approach
- Commitment and Exploration: The Need for a Developmental Approach
- Identity Status: On Refinding the People
- Autobiographical Reasoning is Constitutive for Narrative Identity: The Role of the Life Story for Personal Continuity
- Autobiographical Reasoning and My Discontent: Alternative Paths from Narrative to Identity
- Discerning Oneself: A Plea for the Whole
- Identity as Internal Processes: How the “I” Comes to Define the “Me”
- Identities as an Interactional Process
- Integrating “Internal,” “Interactional,” and “External” Perspectives: Identity Process as the Formulation of Accountable Claims Regarding Selves
- Culture as Race/Ethnicity
- “[T]hey Say Black Men Won’t Make It, But I Know I’m Gonna Make It”: Ethnic and Racial Identity Development in the Context of Cultural Stereotypes
- Reflections on the Cultural Lenses of Identity Development
- Identities, Cultures, and Schooling: How Students Navigate Racial-Ethnic, Indigenous, Immigrant, Social Class, and Gender Identities on Their Pathways Through School
- Transformation, Erosion, or Disparity in Work Identity?: Challenges During the Contemporary Transition to Adulthood
- Identity and Positive Youth Development: Advances in Developmental Intervention Science
- A Translational Research Approach to Narrative Identity in Psychotherapy
- Youths’ Constructions of Meanings About Experiences with Political Conflict: Implications for Processes of Identity Development
- Puberty, Identity, and Context: A Biopsychosocial Perspective on Internalizing Psychopathology in Early Adolescent Girls
- Body Image and Identity: A Call for New Research
- Cultural Neuroscience of Identity Development
- Parenting, Adolescent–Parent Relationships, and Social Domain Theory: Implications for Identity Development
- Who Am I If We’re Not Us? Divorce and Identity Across the Lifespan
- Identity Development in the Context of the Risk and Resilience Framework
- The Dynamic Role of Identity Processes in Personality Development: Theories, Patterns, and New Directions
- Identity Development in the Digital Age: The Case of Social Networking Sites
- Identity Formation Research from a Critical Perspective: Is a Social Science Developing?
- What Have We Learned Since Schwartz (2001)?: A Reappraisal of the Field of Identity Development
- The Future of Identity Development Research: Reflections, Tensions, and Challenges
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter makes the claim that culture can be and is used interchangeably with racial and ethnic identity and contends that these are the psychosocial manifestations of race and ethnicity, respectively. It begins with a discussion of identity development and the separation of personal and social identity into relatively independent strands of research, each with its own set of theoretical formulations. Several definitions of culture, race, ethnicity, racial identity, and ethnic identity are reviewed, and the chapter discusses how Black culture is used in both popular and academic discourse, in support of the contention of interchangeability. Racial and ethnic identity are shown to be related to cultural outcomes and dependent on culture, thus challenging the notion that racial and ethnic identity are developmental constructs and suggesting that strong evidence supports an attitudinal interpretation of both of these constructs. The chapter concludes with suggestions for the future, more precise use, definition, and operationalization of these constructs.
Frank C. Worrell is a Professor in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley, and holds affilate appointments in the Psychology Department (Social and Personality area), and with the Center for Child and Youth Policy, the Center for Race and Gender, and the Center for Latino Policy Research. His current appointments include Director of the School Psychology program, Faculty Director of the Academic Talent Development Program, and Faculty Director of the California College Preparatory Academy.
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