- List of Contributors
- Collecting in Premodern Europe
- Conservation and Restoration
- Collecting in Early America
- Current Trends in Museum Display
- Three-Dimensional Scanning and Modeling
- Marble Quarries: Ancient Imperial Administration and Modern Scientific Analyses
- Marble Carving Techniques, Workshops, and Artisans
- Reuse and Recarving: Technical Evidence
- Transport and Distribution
- Style: Applications and Limitations
- Etruscan Connections
- “Idealplastik” and the Relationship between Greek and Roman Sculpture
- Monumental Reliefs
- Archaism and Eclecticism
- Egyptian-Style Monuments
- Late Antique Sculpture
- Architectural Settings
- Religious Dedications
- Domestic Displays
- Funerary Monuments
- Epigraphy and Patronage
- Imperial Messages
- Non-Elite Patronage
- Northern Gaul, Germany, and Britain
- Hispaniae and Narbonensis
- North Africa
- Asia Minor
- Near East
- Aesthetics and Latin Literary Reception
- Reception Theory
- Ancient Analogs of Museums
- Images of Statues in Other Media
- Human Interactions with Statues
- Art Credits
Abstract and Keywords
Among the many roles of Roman sculpture—whether private portraits, imperial propaganda, shop signs, or mythological Idealplastik—was the reinforcement of social stratifications, especially the hierarchy created by the gender binary so ingrained in classical cultures. While social class, foreign status, and transgressive sexual identities sometimes complicated matters, the iconography of “male” and “female” was mostly straightforward—even if the relationships between gender and power were sometimes knotty in the Roman world. This chapter explores those iconographies and the social roles on which they were based, as well as a few cases in which such standard imagery was contravened. It also addresses methods scholars have employed to bring issues of gender, sexuality, and status to the forefront of Roman art history. The chapter pays special attention to feminist scholarship on images of women and the means by which these asserted individual identity, cultural ideals of femininity, and sexual difference.
Eve D’Ambra, Vassar College.
Francesca Tronchin, Rhodes College.
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