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date: 07 April 2020

Abstract and Keywords

In 1993, Afro-British sociologist Paul Gilroy published The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Written almost fifty years after the first stirring of Atlantic World history, it explores the diasporic odyssey of Africans and persons of African descent around the Atlantic basin, as well as W. E. B. DuBois’s concept of “double consciousness.” With his book, Gilroy paved the way for Atlantic World studies, which is generally about blacks and whites. Later, a “Red Atlantic” emerged, shaped along the lines of the Black Atlantic and centered on Native Americans. This article examines the history of trans-Atlantic intellectual and creative exchange, as well as the oceanic and continental influences on Indigenous literature. It discusses a number of texts that have contributed to the formulation of the Red Atlantic, including those attributed to Susanna Haswell Rowson, Voltaire, Edgar Allan Poe, Garcilaso de la Vega, and Paul Cuffe and his son, Paul Jr.

Keywords: Paul Gilroy, Africans, double consciousness, Atlantic World studies, Red Atlantic, Black Atlantic, Native Americans, Indigenous literature, Garcilaso de la Vega, Paul Cuffe

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