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date: 19 January 2020

Abstract and Keywords

The relationship between sleep and ADHD is not well understood. To identify research and practice priorities, meta-analytic, systematic, and narrative reviews were examined. Consistent findings across meta-analyses and systematic reviews (Level 1) included a discrepancy between parent-reported sleep problems and those identified on objective measures, increased motor movements during sleep, the absence of an ADHD-specific sleep architecture profile, and the need to consider confounding variables (e.g., age, comorbidity). Findings with some consistency across reviews (Level 2) included negative effects of medication on sleep, increased daytime sleepiness, and higher, but nonpathological, increases in sleep apnea indices in children with ADHD. Narrative reviews give comparable emphasis to Level 1 and 2 findings, underplaying confounding or moderating variables. Given the results of our review, we believe that it is important to conceptualize ADHD as a chronic and pervasive disorder that affects children not only during the day but also during the night. That is, ADHD is a 24-hour disorder.

Keywords: ADHD, sleep, children, assessment, intervention

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