Abstract and Keywords
There are several strata of Chinese loanwords in Japanese. In order of time depth, these are (i) A Suiko period (early 7th century) inscription, as well as earlier materials, reflecting Old Chinese; (ii) Go-on, as well as Japanese proper names rendered in Chinese characters, recorded in the Kojiki (712) and Manyoshu, and reflecting Early Middle Chinese; (iii) Kan-on, and materials in the Nihonshoki (720), which reflect the Chang'an dialect of Middle Chinese; (iv) New Kan-on, which reflects the newer layer of Late Middle Chinese; (v) Tō-on, which reflects various dialects (including Wu dialect) from the Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing Dynasties; and (vi) Modern borrowings (after the 20th century).
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