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date: 26 July 2021

Abstract and Keywords

How does the onset, course, and development of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood differ between males and females? This essay reviews and synthesizes evidence from numerous developmentally informative studies. Taken together, these studies suggest that (a) males engage in more frequent, diverse, and severe antisocial behavior across all ages; (b) sex differences in both social (parental socialization, monitoring, peer disapproval of aggression) and neurodevelopmental factors (impulse control, emotion regulation, and perspective-taking abilities) appear to play a role in fostering these sex differences in antisocial behavior; and (c) although fewer females engage in antisocial behavior, females’ antisocial trajectories appear to be more similar to males’ than they are different. The essay concludes by summarizing these findings and highlighting important areas for future research.

Keywords: antisocial behavior, developmental trajectories, sex differences, group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM), longitudinal

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