- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- Doing Crime as Doing Gender?: Masculinities, Femininities, and Crime
- Intersectionality and the Study of Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Sexual Violence
- Back to Basics: Gender and the Social Psychology of Aggression
- Feminist Criminologies’ Contribution to Understandings of Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Explaining the Volte-Face: Turning Away from Criminal Law and Returning to the Quest for Gender Equality
- Long-Term Trends in Female and Male Involvement in Crime
- A Historical Perspective on Criminal Justice Responses to Female and Male Offending
- Gender, Sex, and Intimate-Partner Violence in Historical Perspective
- Masculinities and Crime in Historical Perspective
- Sexual Violence in Historical Perspective
- Crimes Related to Sexuality and Reproduction
- Evolutionary Perspectives on Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Biological Perspectives on Sex Differences in Crime and Antisocial Behavior
- Developmental Perspectives: Sex Differences in Antisocial Behavior from Childhood to Adulthood
- Adolescent Crime and Victimization: Sex and Gender Differences, Similarities, and Emerging Intersections
- Gender and Offending in a Life Course Context
- Intimate-Partner Violence
- Violence Against Children in Families
- Violence Against Sexual and Gender Minorities
- Sex, Gender, and Homicide: Contemporary Trends and Patterns
- Organized Crime: The Gender Constraints of Illegal Markets
- Street Gangs: The Gendered Experiences of Female and Male Gang Members
- White-Collar and Corporate Crime
- Sex Work, Gender, and Criminal Justice
- Complicating the Immigration–Crime Nexus: Theorizing the Role of Gender in the Relationship Between Immigration and Crime
- The Benefits and Penalties of Gender for Criminal Justice Processing Outcomes Among Adults and Juveniles
- Sex, Gender, and Imprisonment: Rates, Reforms, and Lived Realities
- Media, Gender, Sex, and Crime
- Empirical Vacuum: In Search of Research on Human Trafficking
- The Legal Regulation of Sex and Sexuality
- Honor Killings
- Beyond Rape: Reconceptualizing Gender-Based Violence During Warfare
- State Rape and the Crime of Genocide
Abstract and Keywords
This essay reviews research in the domains of genetics, structural brain imaging, neuropsychology, psychophysiology, and hormones in order to examine (a) whether the same risk factors that are characteristic of antisocial behavior in males are also associated with these behaviors in females and (b) whether biological sex differences could underlie the sex difference in antisocial behavior. Only a few studies examine the biological correlates of antisocial behavior in females, but they find that many of the same biological risk factors appear to characterize both male and female behavior. There is also suggestive evidence that sex differences in biological factors underlie sex differences in antisocial behavior, although candidate biological factors have been subjected to little empirical testing. In general, there is promising evidence that biosocial research could make important contributions to our understanding of sex differences in antisocial behavior.
Jill Portnoy is a PhD candidate in Criminology at the University of Pennsylvania.
Frances Ruiyun Chen is a PhD candidate in Criminology at the University of Pennsylvania.
Yu Gao is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Brooklyn College, City University of New York.
Sharon Niv, Ph.D., just earned her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology & Brain Cognitive Science at the University of Southern California. Her focus involves using childhood EEG patterns to predict adolescent mood and behavior, and therapeutic neurofeedback.
Robert A. Schug is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice and Forensic Psychology at California State University, Long Beach.
Yaling Yang is Post-Doctoral Research Fellow in Neurology at the UCLA School of Medicine.
Adrian Raine is Chair of the Department of Psychology and Richard Perry University Professor in the Department of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania.
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