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date: 24 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter develops the contrast between Musonius Rufus and Dio of Prusa in their mode of self-representation. The later Stoics Seneca, Musonius Rufus, and Epictetus embrace a low-authority profile and recommend discretion for the philosopher (recommendations which Marcus Aurelius adopts in his own manner). In doing so they consciously resist the traditional status markers without giving up altogether on the notion of socio-political responsibility. Dio, on the other hand, in his role as public speaker makes full use of these status markers in the hope of increasing his effectiveness (as does Plutarch to some extent in his works on practical philosophy). Hence the contrast represents a cultural dilemma.

Keywords: Stoicism, self-representation, Seneca, Musonius Rufus, Epictetus, Dio of Prusa, Plutarch, Marcus Aurelius

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