Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 29 November 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Compared with episodic depression, chronic depression and treatment resistant depression have higher rates of comorbidity, more persistent social and vocational disability, an increased risk of suicide, greater medical morbidity and mortality, and greater health care utilization and costs. A large number of antidepressant medications and other psychotropic drugs, depression-focused psychotherapies, and neuromodulation therapies are available for the treatment of depression. Many drugs or psychotherapies are used for the treatment of other psychiatric disorders or medical conditions, and they should be considered relevant when these comorbidities exist with depression. Selecting treatments for depression must take into account the clinical implications of the presence of any comorbidities. Because comorbidity is associated with depressive chronicity and treatment resistance, various approaches to treating chronic depression or TRD have been investigated. Treating depressed patients with comorbid psychiatric, personality, or medical disorders is a clinical challenge that requires effective multidisciplinary collaboration.

Keywords: comorbidity, chronic depression, treatment resistant depression, antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.