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date: 29 November 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Compared with episodic depression, chronic depression and treatment resistant depression have higher rates of comorbidity, more persistent social and vocational disability, an increased risk of suicide, greater medical morbidity and mortality, and greater health care utilization and costs. A large number of antidepressant medications and other psychotropic drugs, depression-focused psychotherapies, and neuromodulation therapies are available for the treatment of depression. Many drugs or psychotherapies are used for the treatment of other psychiatric disorders or medical conditions, and they should be considered relevant when these comorbidities exist with depression. Selecting treatments for depression must take into account the clinical implications of the presence of any comorbidities. Because comorbidity is associated with depressive chronicity and treatment resistance, various approaches to treating chronic depression or TRD have been investigated. Treating depressed patients with comorbid psychiatric, personality, or medical disorders is a clinical challenge that requires effective multidisciplinary collaboration.

Keywords: comorbidity, chronic depression, treatment resistant depression, antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation

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