- The Oxford Handbook of Political Communication
- Political Communication: Then, Now, and Beyond
- Creating the Hybrid Field of Political Communication: A Five-Decade-Long Evolution of the Concept of Effects
- The Shape of Political Communication
- A Typology of Media Effects
- The Power of Political Communication
- Nowhere to Go: Some Dilemmas of Deliberative Democracy
- How to Think Normatively About News and Democracy
- Not a Fourth Estate but a Second Legislature
- Presidential Address
- Political Messages and Partisanship
- Political Advertising
- Political Campaign Debates
- Niche Communication in Political Campaigns
- The Functional Theory of Political Campaign Communication
- The Political Uses and Abuses of Civility and Incivility
- The Politics of Memory
- The Gatekeeping of Political Messages
- The Media Agenda: Who (or What) Sets It?
- Game versus Substance in Political News
- Going Institutional: The Making of Political Communications
- Theories of Media Bias
- Digital Media and Perceptions of Source Credibility in Political Communication
- Candidate Traits and Political Choice
- Political Communication, Information Processing, and Social Groups
- Civic Norms and Communication Competence: Pathways to Socialization and Citizenship
- Framing Inequality in Public Policy Discourse: The Nature of Constraint
- Political Communication: Insights from Field Experiments
- Two-Step Flow, Diffusion, and the Role of Social Networks in Political Communication
- Taking Interdependence Seriously: Platforms for Understanding Political Communication
- Disagreement in Political Discussion
- The Internal Dynamics and Political Power of Small Group Political Deliberation
- Ethnography of Politics and Political Communication: Studies in Sociology and Political Science
- Self-censorship, the Spiral of Silence, and Contemporary Political Communication
- Collective Intelligence: The Wisdom and Foolishness of Deliberating Groups
- Broadcasting versus Narrowcasting: Do Mass Media Exist in the Twenty-First Century?
- Online News Consumption in the United States and Ideological Extremism
- New Media and Political Campaigns
- Political Discussion and Deliberation Online
- The Political Effects of Entertainment Media
- Theories and Effects of Political Humor: Discounting Cues, Gateways, and the Impact of Incongruities
- Music as Political Communication
- Conditions for Political Accountability in a High-Choice Media Environment
- Political Communication: Looking Ahead
Abstract and Keywords
In an effort to overcome the limitations of survey research and lab experimentation, researchers studying the effects of communication have increasingly turned to field experimentation, or randomized trials conducted in real-world settings. This essay describes the research designs and findings from illustrative field experiments in three substantive domains. First, the authors consider public information campaigns designed to encourage voters to hold public officials accountable for performance in office. Second, they discuss individually targeted information designed to encourage voters and taxpayers to comply with social norms. Finally, they review recent attempts to study the electoral effects of television and radio advertisements. This array of studies illustrates how field experiments may contribute to a broad range of important theoretical and policy debates.
Donald P. Green (Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley) is Professor of Political Science at Columbia University. The author of four books and more than one hundred essays, Green's research interests span a wide array of topics: voting behavior, partisanship, campaign finance, hate crime, and research methods. Much of his current work uses field experimentation to study the ways in which political campaigns mobilize and persuade voters, but he has also conducted experimental research on the effects of the mass media, civic education classes, and criminal sentencing. With Alan Gerber, he recently co-authored a textbook on this research method titled Field Experiments: Design, Analysis, and Interpretation (W.W. Norton, 2012).
Allison J. Carnegie is a Ph.D. candidate, pursuing a joint degree in the Departments of Political Science and Economics at Yale University. Her research focuses on political economy and political methodology. In political economy she works on economic policy and international trade, and in methods she focuses on causal inference. Her work has appeared in the American Journal of Political Science and she has been awarded the J. Jacueline and Roger B. Kaufman Fellowship, the Falk Fellowship, and the Yale University Dissertation Fellowship.
Joel Middleton (Ph.D., Yale University) is visiting Assistant Professor of applied statistics at the Steinhardt School at New York University. His interests include design-based estimation and causal inference in randomized experiments. He also studies voter behavior and political persuasion, and he has 10 years experience designing surveys and experimental interventions for political organizations. He received a Ph.D. in Political Science from Yale University, a Masters in Statistics from The George Washington University, a Masters in Psychology from Brown University, and his B.S. from Lewis and Clark College.
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