- The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music
- Introduction: The Many Futures of Computer Music
- A Historical View of Computer Music Technology
- Early Hardware and Early Ideas in Computer Music: Their Development and Their Current Forms
- Sound Synthesis Using Computers
- Computational Approaches to Composition of Notated Instrumental Music: Xenakis and the Other Pioneers
- Envisaging Improvisation in Future Computer Music
- Computer Music: Some Reflections
- Some Notes on My Electronic Improvisation Practice
- Combining the Acoustic and the Digital: Music for Instruments and Computers or Prerecorded Sound
- Dancing the Music: Interactive Dance and Music
- Gesture and Morphology in Laptop Music Performance
- Sensor-Based Musical Instruments and Interactive Music
- Spatialization and Computer Music
- The Voice in Computer Music and Its Relationship to Place, Identity, and Community
- Algorithmic Synesthesia
- An Introduction to Data Sonification
- Generative Algorithms for Making Music: Emergence, Evolution, and Ecosystems
- Computational Modeling of Music Cognition and Musical Creativity
- Soundspotting: A New Kind of Process?
- Interactivity and Improvisation
- From Outside the Window: Electronic Sound Performance
- Empirical Studies of Computer Sound
- Toward the Gender Ideal
- Sound-Based Music 4 All
- Framing Learning Perspectives in Computer Music Education
- Appendix: A Chronology of Computer Music and Related Events
Abstract and Keywords
This article pinpoints a specific movement within the broad spectrum of music technology to identify a musical and instrument-building tradition concerned with gesture. This area of research and creative practice, often labeled NIME after the international conference series New Interfaces for Musical Expression, goes beyond enhancing traditional instrument performance practice to looking at new paradigms for instrumental performance. This article focuses on musically driven efforts to exploit analog and digital technologies to capture musical gesture and afford new forms of sonic articulation and musical expression. It retraces the history of music technology in the twentieth century that led up to the founding of NIME and introduces composers and performers who have established a performance practice on interactive, sensor-based musical instruments. Finally, it finishes by indicating current directions in the field, including the musical exploitation of biometric signals and location-tracking technologies.
Goldsmiths, University of London
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