- The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music
- Introduction: The Many Futures of Computer Music
- A Historical View of Computer Music Technology
- Early Hardware and Early Ideas in Computer Music: Their Development and Their Current Forms
- Sound Synthesis Using Computers
- Computational Approaches to Composition of Notated Instrumental Music: Xenakis and the Other Pioneers
- Envisaging Improvisation in Future Computer Music
- Computer Music: Some Reflections
- Some Notes on My Electronic Improvisation Practice
- Combining the Acoustic and the Digital: Music for Instruments and Computers or Prerecorded Sound
- Dancing the Music: Interactive Dance and Music
- Gesture and Morphology in Laptop Music Performance
- Sensor-Based Musical Instruments and Interactive Music
- Spatialization and Computer Music
- The Voice in Computer Music and Its Relationship to Place, Identity, and Community
- Algorithmic Synesthesia
- An Introduction to Data Sonification
- Generative Algorithms for Making Music: Emergence, Evolution, and Ecosystems
- Computational Modeling of Music Cognition and Musical Creativity
- Soundspotting: A New Kind of Process?
- Interactivity and Improvisation
- From Outside the Window: Electronic Sound Performance
- Empirical Studies of Computer Sound
- Toward the Gender Ideal
- Sound-Based Music 4 All
- Framing Learning Perspectives in Computer Music Education
- Appendix: A Chronology of Computer Music and Related Events
Abstract and Keywords
This article presents a historical view of computer music technology. It starts by discussing important terminology in this field. Kassler and Howe (1980) briefly characterized computer music technologies as replacements for conventional human musical activities, an approach akin to the more general writings of the media theorist Marshall McLuhan (1964). This article charts a course influenced by both these sources. Although it treats musical technologies prior to the computer, it forms an essential backdrop to the ensuing discussion. Furthermore, it examines the development of the computer as a musical instrument, broadly speaking, and then the means by which human musicians have operated this “instrument.” Next, it considers the computer as a musician itself, whether composer or performer. Finally, it concludes with a synopsis of some trends in computer music technology in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
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