- The Oxford Handbooks in Linguistics
- The Oxford Handbook of Arabic Linguistics
- Transcription and Transliteration Equivalences
- A House of Sound Structure, of Marvelous form and Proportion: An Introduction
- Arabic Folk Linguistics: Between Mother Tongue and Native Language
- Arabic Linguistic Tradition I: Naḥw and ṣarf
- Arabic Linguistic Tradition II: Pragmatics
- Codeswitching and Related Issues Involving Arabic
- Arabic Dialectology
- Issues in Arabic Computational Linguistics
- Modern Lexicography
- Orality, Culture, And Language
- Pidgins and Creoles
- Second-Language Acquisition
- The Arabic Literary Language: <i>The Nahḍa (and beyond)</i>
- The Arabic Writing System
- The Classical Arabic Lexicographical Tradition
- The Philological Approach to Arabic Grammar
- The Syntax of Arabic From A Generative Perspective
- What Is Arabic?
- Index of Names
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
This article discusses the developments in formal written Arabic in the early Modern period, which started with Napoleon’s invasion and occupation of Egypt (1798–1802), when the Arab Muslim world first came into direct contact with the West. The article first discusses the emergence and development of Modern Standard Arabic. Then it details the calls for language reform and revival, spurred by widening political and financial encroachments of Western powers all over the Muslim world. Finally, the article describes the establishment of language institutions aimed at preserving the language from foreign terms. It shows that the existence of multiple normative institutions was inherently self-defeating. Driven by political and ideological reasons, it resulted in petty rivalries between the various organizations, each vying for authority.
Daniel Newman, Durham University
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