- About the Contributors
- The Evolution of Research on U.S. Environmental Policy
- Environmental Politics and Policy in Historical Perspective
- Green Political Ideas and Environmental Policy
- Evolving Concepts of Sustainability in Environmental Policy
- Ethical Challenges in Environmental Policy
- Environmental Security and U.S. Politics
- Capacity for Governance: Innovation and the Challenge of the Third Era
- U.S. Climate Change Politics: Federalism and Complexity
- Sustainable Development and Governance
- United States International Environmental Policy
- Global Environmental Policy Making
- Courts, Legal Analysis, and Environmental Policy
- Congress and Environmental Policy
- The American Presidency and Environmental Policy
- Environmental Bureaucracies: The Environmental Protection Agency
- Bureaucracy and Natural Resources Policy
- Defining Environmental Rule Making
- Environmental Federalism and the Role of State and Local Governments
- The Promise and Performance of Collaborative Governance
- Issue Framing, Agenda Setting, and Environmental Discourse
- Public Opinion on Environmental Policy in the United States
- Public Participation, Citizen Engagement, and Environmental Decision Making
- Organized Interests and Environmental Policy
- Parties, Campaigns, and Elections
- The Role of Market Incentives in Environmental Policy
- Flexible Approaches to Environmental Regulation
- Ecosystem-Based Management and Restoration
- The Use of Strategic Planning, Information, and Analysis in Environmental Policy Making and Management
- Environmental Policy and Science
- Environmental Policy Evaluation and the Prospects for Public Learning
- Research on U.S. Environmental Policy in the New Century
Abstract and Keywords
This article considers the intellectual traditions that have shaped how we view science, current controversies related to science and environmental policy, and some alternatives to deal with the complexities of science and environmental policy making. It suggests that science should be seen as one form of knowledge that can inform policy, and that understanding the role of science and these other types of knowledge within the distinct phases of the policy process can provide greater insight into how we might think about and use science more constructively.
William Ascher is Professor of Government and Economics, Claremont McKenna College.
Toddi A. Steelman is Professor of Environmental and Natural Resource Policy in the Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University.
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