- About the Contributors
- The Evolution of Research on U.S. Environmental Policy
- Environmental Politics and Policy in Historical Perspective
- Green Political Ideas and Environmental Policy
- Evolving Concepts of Sustainability in Environmental Policy
- Ethical Challenges in Environmental Policy
- Environmental Security and U.S. Politics
- Capacity for Governance: Innovation and the Challenge of the Third Era
- U.S. Climate Change Politics: Federalism and Complexity
- Sustainable Development and Governance
- United States International Environmental Policy
- Global Environmental Policy Making
- Courts, Legal Analysis, and Environmental Policy
- Congress and Environmental Policy
- The American Presidency and Environmental Policy
- Environmental Bureaucracies: The Environmental Protection Agency
- Bureaucracy and Natural Resources Policy
- Defining Environmental Rule Making
- Environmental Federalism and the Role of State and Local Governments
- The Promise and Performance of Collaborative Governance
- Issue Framing, Agenda Setting, and Environmental Discourse
- Public Opinion on Environmental Policy in the United States
- Public Participation, Citizen Engagement, and Environmental Decision Making
- Organized Interests and Environmental Policy
- Parties, Campaigns, and Elections
- The Role of Market Incentives in Environmental Policy
- Flexible Approaches to Environmental Regulation
- Ecosystem-Based Management and Restoration
- The Use of Strategic Planning, Information, and Analysis in Environmental Policy Making and Management
- Environmental Policy and Science
- Environmental Policy Evaluation and the Prospects for Public Learning
- Research on U.S. Environmental Policy in the New Century
Abstract and Keywords
This article examines what we know about flexible approaches to environmental regulation. It begins by defining more precisely what we mean by flexible regulation, placing the concept within a general framework of regulation. Adhering to this framework, it shows the role that flexible regulation can play in environmental protection and assesses what we know about flexible regulation's impacts on business behavior and environmental quality.
Lori S. Bennear is Assistant Professor of Environmental Economics and Policy in the Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University.
Cary Coglianese is the Edward B. Shils Professor of Law, Professor of Political Science, and Director of the Penn Program on Regulation, University of Pennsylvania.
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