Abstract and Keywords
This article focuses on the fermentation of three dairy products: yogurt, kefir, and kumys. Yogurt is made from a heat-treated yogurt mix with the help of a starter culture consisting of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Yogurt is prepared from milk from cow, buffalo, sheep, and goat, but cow’s milk is predominantly used for commercial yogurt manufacture. The article describes the basis of yogurt manufacturing that includes standardization of the yogurt mix, homogenization, heat treatment, cooling to incubation temperature, inoculation with a bacterial culture, incubation, cooling, and packaging. It also discusses the preparation of milk and milk bases, sweetening agents used in yogurt, and different types of yogurt. Finally, it considers the production and consumption of kefir and kumys.
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