Abstract and Keywords
This article focuses on vinegar fermentation. The term vinegar refers to numerous products that include wine, malt, and cider vinegar, along with alcohol-derived vinegars, balsamic and aromatic vinegars, and those of tropical origin derived from fruit. Vinegar is the product of acetic fermentation of weakly alcoholic liquids and results from the oxidative action of aerobic micro-organisms of the genus Acetobacter. The article first provides an overview of vinegar history before discussing vinegar production worldwide. It then considers the various uses and health benefits of vinegar, vinegar processing technology, and vinegar characterization. It also examines the raw materials used in making vinegar such as wine vinegar, sherry vinegar, traditional balsamic vinegar, apple vinegar, malt vinegar, rice vinegar, vinegars from other fruits, vinegars from other cereals, sugarcane vinegar, vinegar from other plant material, honey vinegar, whey vinegar, and spirit vinegar. The article concludes with an analysis of future trends in vinegar production.