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date: 22 September 2019

Abstract and Keywords

In the first part of this chapter the focus is on research comparing the effectiveness (i.e., psychotherapy outcomes) of various treatment modalities: individual, group, couple, and family therapies. In the second section the discussion shifts to focus on research that examines therapy process similarities and differences across the various treatment modalities. The chapter includes a review of the research literature comparing individual, group, couple, and family treatments. Although there are numerous studies comparing treatment approaches (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy vs. psychodynamic therapy), far fewer studies have compared treatment modalities. For treatment outcome differences, a number of meta-analyses examining similarities and differences across treatment modalities are reviewed, summarized, and critiqued. Exploring differences in therapeutic processes involved reviewing, summarizing, and critiquing studies that examined similarities and differences in the character of the therapeutic alliance, helpful events, and therapist behaviors and techniques. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future research. Two major approaches to new research are recommended: focus on treatment goals and systemic processes and an increased focus on the therapeutic processes that cut across and differentiate the treatment modalities

Keywords: individual treatment, group treatment, couple and family treatment, treatment outcome, therapeutic processes

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