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date: 14 July 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Identifying client characteristics that influence negative psychotherapy outcomes is vitally important. This chapter reviews baseline client characteristics that have demonstrated direct relationships with unsuccessful treatment outcomes, as well as client traits that have functioned as moderators of specific treatment effects and process-outcome associations. Throughout this chapter client characteristics are defined as preexisting individual differences or traits that clients bring into the therapy context. Identifying client baseline characteristics that influence, directly or indirectlyc, negative outcomes is vitally important. This review divides such client characteristics into the following categories: demographic variables, expectancies, mental health variables, intra-psychic traits, and interpersonal traits. Implications of reviewed research findings for psychotherapy practice are discussed.

Keywords: client characteristics, psychotherapy process, psychotherapy outcome, negative outcomes, working alliance

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