- Oxford Library of Psychology
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- Toward Bridging Gaps: Finding Commonality between Evolutionary and Comparative Psychology
- Why Behaviorism Isn't Satanism
- Confronting Language, Representation, and Belief: A Limited Defense of Mental Continuity
- Evolved Cognitive Adaptations
- Convergent Evolution of Cognition in Corvids, Apes and Other Animals
- Social Complexity and Intelligence
- Cephalopod Intelligence
- Cold-Blooded Cognition: Reptilian Cognitive Abilities
- Cetacean Cognitive Specializations
- Socio-Cognitive Specializations in Nonhuman Primates: Evidence from Gestural Communication
- The Evolution of Canine Cognition
- Episodic Memory and Planning
- Comparative Mental Time Travel: Is There a Cognitive Divide between Humans and Animals in Episodic Memory and Planning?
- Animal Models of Human Cognition
- Metacognition across Species
- Symbolic Communication in the Grey Parrot
- Communication in Nonhuman Primates
- Female Preference Functions Provide a Window into Cognition, the Evolution of Communication, and Speciation in Plant-Feeding Insects
- Apes and the Evolution of Language: Taking Stock of 40 Years of Research
- The Phylogeny and Ontogeny of Prosocial Behavior
- The Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Cooperation
- Culture and the Evolution of Human Sociality
- The Evolution of Morality: Which Aspects of Human Moral Concerns Are Shared With Nonhuman Primates?
- The Evolutionary and Comparative Psychology of Social Learning and Culture
- Cognitive Imitation: Insights into the Development and Evolution of Social Learning
- The Ecology and Evolution of Social Behavior and Cognition in Primates
- The Evolution of a Cooperative Social Mind
- Darwin, Tinbergen, and the Evolution of Comparative Cognition
- Comparative Evolutionary Psychology: A United Discipline for the Study of Evolved Traits
Abstract and Keywords
For over 30 years, I have used a modeling technique (the model/rival or M/R procedure) to train Grey parrots to use an allospecific code (English speech) referentially, and then employed the code to test their cognitive abilities. The oldest bird, Alex, labeled 〉50 objects, seven colors, five shapes, quantities to eight, three categories (color, shape, material) and used “no,” “come here,” “wanna go X,” and “want Y” (X, Y being appropriate location or item labels). He combined labels to identify, request, comment on, or refuse 〉150 items and to alter his environment. He processed queries to judge category, relative size, quantity, presence or absence of similarity/difference in attributes, show label comprehension and a zero-like concept; he demonstrated some understanding of phonological awareness, and numerical competence more comparable to that of young children than to nonhumans. His requests were intentional. He consequently exhibited capacities presumed limited to humans or nonhuman primates. Younger birds are acquiring similar competence.
Irene M. Pepperberg (S.B, MIT, 1969; PhD, Harvard, 1976) is a Research Associate and Lecturer (Harvard) and an Adjunct Associate Professor (Brandeis). She was a visiting Assistant Professor (Northwestern), tenured Associate Professor (University of Arizona), and visiting Associate Professor (MIT's Media Lab, Ecole Normale Superieure). She has received John Simon Guggenheim, Selby, and Radcliffe Fellowships, is a Fellow of AAAS and other professional societies, has published over 50 peer‐reviewed papers, 60 reviews, and two books.
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.