Abstract and Keywords
Epidemiological studies have reported varying rates of personality pathology; some report similar overall rates among men and women, while others have found slightly higher rates of personality disorders (PDs) in men. Only antisocial PD has consistently shown large gender differences, with men showing a lifetime rate of approximately 5%, while women show a rate of approximately 1%. Gender differences in PDs seem to reflect gender differences in normal personality traits, where men tend to score higher on traits such as assertiveness and excitement seeking, while women score higher on traits such as anxiousness, depression, vulnerability, and warmth. Psychometric studies have found some evidence of systematic gender bias in the diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV-TR PDs, and this area requires more extensive investigation. More evidence is also needed regarding the differential impact of PDs on the social functioning of men and women.
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