- Abbreviations and Spelling Norms
- Ancient Written Sources for Engineering and Technology
- Representations of Technical Processes
- Historiography and Theoretical Approaches
- Mining and Metallurgy
- Quarrying and Stoneworking
- Sources of Energy and Exploitation of Power
- Greek and Roman Agriculture
- Animal Husbandry, Hunting, Fishing, and Fish Production
- Greek Engineering and Construction
- Roman Engineering and Construction
- Hydraulic Engineering and Water Supply
- Tunnels and Canals
- Machines in Greek and Roman Technology
- Food Processing and Preparation
- Large-Scale Manufacturing, Standardization, and Trade
- Metalworking and Tools
- Textile Production
- Tanning and Leather
- Ceramic Production
- Glass Production
- Land Transport, Part 1: Roads and Bridges
- Land Transport, Part 2: Riding, Harnesses, and Vehicles
- Sea Transport, Part 1: Ships and Navigation
- Sea Transport, Part 2: Harbors
- Greek Warfare and Fortification
- Roman Warfare and Fortification
- Information Technologies: Writing, Book Production, and the Role of Literacy
- Technologies of Calculation
- Gadgets and Scientific Instruments
- Inventors, Invention, and Attitudes toward Technology and Innovation
- Expanding Ethnoarchaeology: Historical Evidence and Model-Building in the Study of Technological Change
Abstract and Keywords
This article examines the nature of agriculture in the Mediterranean epicenter, considering the combination of arboriculture and arable agriculture typical of the region. It also reports the developments on the periphery of that world that led to a range of enduring innovations in agricultural technology. The evidence from texts and archaeology draws repeatedly on ethnographic observation of more recent small-scale Mediterranean agriculture. The importance of water management and irrigation on the cultivation of vines and olives in Greece and Rome is described. The dynamics of change through time owed much to the economic structures of the classical world. Some of the most enduring legacies of classical agriculture particularly extensive water management and the heavy plow, owe much to the interaction between agricultural technologies in the Mediterranean heartland of the classical world and long-standing practices in the geographical regions to which classical influence subsequently spread.
Dr. Evi Margaritis, Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge.
Prof. Martin Kenneth Jones, Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge.
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.