- India and the World Economy, 1757–1947
- Battles Half Won: Political Economy of India's Growth and Economic Policy Since Independence
- Estimating Rural Poverty: Distributional Outcomes, Evaluations, and Policy Responses
- Microfinance: The Shg-Linkage Program
- Microinsurance: A Case Study of the Indian Rainfall Index Insurance Market
- Caste and Upward Mobility
- Performance of Indian Manufacturing in the Postreform Period
- Informal Sector and the Developing World: Relating Theory and Evidence to India
- Structural Transformation and Jobless Growth in the Indian Economy
- Development, Displacement, and Food Security: Land Acquisition in India
- Reforming Primary and Secondary Schooling
- Higher Education Reforms in India
- Health and Health Care Policy in India: The Case for Quality of Care
- Population Dynamics in India and Implications for Economic Growth
- The Dynamics and Status of India's Economic Reforms
- Political Economy of Infrastructure Spending in India
- Aspects of Bureaucratic Corruption
- Distributive Conflicts and Indian Economic Policy: Some Notes On Political Economy
- Economic Growth and Ecological Sustainability in India
- Fiscal Rules in India: are they Effective?
- Financial Frictions and Monetary Policy Transmission in India
- Monetary Policy, Capital Flows, and the Exchange Rate
- India's Trade and Exchange-Rate Policies: Understanding the Bop Crisis and the Reforms Thereafter
- Domestic Financial Sector Reforms
- The Convergence Debate and Econometric Approaches: Evidence from India
- The Globalization Debate and India
- India at the WTO: From Uruguay to Doha and Beyond
- An Estimated DSGE Model of the Indian Economy
- Development Patterns in China and India: Perspective with A Ces Production Function
- What More do we want to know about the Indian Economy?
Abstract and Keywords
This article provides a summary of the state of primary and secondary education in India. It notes the achievements of the sector: increased enrollment, particularly in the primary stage, and a narrowing of many traditional gaps. The supply-side impetus to schooling—which occurred through a host of programs, from independence up the 1990s, and thereafter consolidated through the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in 2002—has led to significant increase in access to schools throughout India. Indeed, one finding in the literature is that the probability of a school being located within a given distance of a child's habitation of residence does increase enrollment. However, school location policy also affects other characteristics of schools that are known to have important effects on learning. For instance, small school size, which tends to be the norm in India because of sparsely distributed and low populated habitations, means that the total numbers of teachers per school are small.
Anjini Kochar (Stanford University, Stanford, California)
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