- Series Information
- The Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime
- List of Contributors
- Organized Crime: A Contested Concept
- Theoretical Perspectives on Organized Crime
- Searching for Organized Crime in History
- How to Research Organized Crime
- The Italian Mafia
- The Italian-American Mafia
- the Russian Mafia: Rise and Extinction
- Organized Crime in Colombia: The Actors Running the Illegal Drug Industry
- Mexican Drug “Cartels”
- Chinese Organized Crime
- The Japanese Yakuza
- Nigerian Criminal Organizations
- Gangs Another Form of Organized Crime?
- Opportunistic Structures of Organized Crime
- Organizing Crime: The State as Agent
- The Social Embeddedness of Organized Crime
- Protection and Extortion
- Drug Markets and Organized Crime
- Human Smuggling, Human Trafficking, and Exploitation in the Sex Industry
- Illegal Gambling
- Money Laundering
- Arms Trafficking
- Organized Fraud
- The Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources
- Organized Crime Control in the United States of America
- U.S. Organized Crime Control Policies Exported Abroad
- European Union Organized Crime Control Policies
- The Fight Against the Italian Mafia
- Organized Crime Control in Australia and New Zealand
- Organized Crime “Control” in Asia: Experiences from India, China, and the Golden Triangle
- Finance-Oriented Strategies of Organized Crime Control
Abstract and Keywords
Ever since authorities decided to restrict gambling, criminals have offered the opportunity to play illegally. Since the end of the nineteenth century, illegal gambling also became one of the classic activities of organized crime. Nowadays, opportunities for organizing illegal gambling vary considerably between countries owing to differences in gambling laws and gambling cultures. In countries that regulate all or most types of gambling, such as the member states of the European Union, criminal operators remain active only in market niches. In the United States and Asia, specific types of gambling, such as casinos and sports betting, remain relatively restricted. Here, gambling continues to be an important source of income for organized crime groups. Until fairly recently, illegal gambling operations were largely organized locally or regionally. Since the mid-1990s, however, the Internet globalized (illegal) gambling and related crimes such as match-fixing. Online gambling substantially reduced the effectiveness of existing regulatory regimes and presented new opportunities to criminals, although the extent to which they are actually the beneficial owners of gambling websites is unknown.
Toine Spapens is Professor, Department of Criminal Law, Tilburg University Law School.
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