Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 02 March 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This essay traces the growth of the Khalsa Sikh community from its inception during the last days of the tenth Sikh Guru, Gobind Singh, to the foundation of several independent misl states in the mid-to-late eighteenth century. Guru Gobind Singh’s creation of the Khalsa in the late seventeenth century replaced the mediating role of intermediaries such as masands with the sole authority of the Guru. After the death of Guru Gobind Singh in 1708, as the province of Punjab entered a period of civil conflict and breakdown in political institutions, the Khalsa Sikhs were able to forge new bonds with Sikh and other communities to establish several misl kingdoms. Although the Sikh kingdoms had a diversity of political and administrative frameworks, the historical memory of Guru Gobind Singh’s court remained an important cultural framework on which new Sikh courtly traditions were grafted.

Keywords: Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh, misl, masand, Banda Bahadur, Alha Singh, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, Ranjit Singh

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.