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date: 20 July 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The ancient Israelites fought to establish a state; later, the Jews adopted communal quietism, and finally developed Zionism. Christians were at first apolitical, then allied with various states. Early Islam aimed for world conquest. Jews have been ambivalent about kingship. Muslims and, often, Christians thought God had established monarchy; yet Christians have supported a wide variety of constitutions. The idea of a secular state arose within Christian culture. Muslims still tend to see the state as promoting religious orthodoxy. Judaism and Islam believed territory, lineage, and law had religious significance. Christianity dissented from this. Platonic philosophy was adopted by Muslim thinkers to support and define the caliphate; it was also adopted by some Jewish thinkers. Liberal democracy derives partly from Christian, partly from non-Abrahamic sources. It has been widely adopted by Jews and many Muslims. Toleration arose partly from both Christian, partly from secular sources.

Keywords: Monarchy, secular state, law, quietism, liberal democracy, caliphate, Zionism, territory, toleration

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