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date: 12 August 2020

Abstract and Keywords

A distinct material culture, economy, and society developed in the south of France during the Iron Age. This phenomenon was related to the way in which local communities were situated between the traditional Celtic societies of temperate Europe, and Mediterranean communities such as the Phoenicians, Etruscans, Greeks, and Romans. This chapter examines the changing nature of settlement types (architecture, urbanization, material culture, topography) and territorial organization during the first millennium BC. From the eighth century BC, local forms of production (agriculture, crafts, trade) were confronted with market activity that greatly expanded after the foundation of Massalia in 600 BC, and towns began to develop soon after. The distinctive monuments and sculpture, public buildings, and burial grounds of the region provide a wealth of insight into religious and funerary practices. The place of different ethnic groups in the regional history is also considered.

Keywords: urbanization, stela, sanctuary, agriculture, oppida, burial practices, Mediterranean commerce, urban layout, religion

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