Abstract and Keywords
The chapter provides an introductory survey of the major schools and thinkers of neo-Kantianism from the 1790s to 1920s. The beginnings of neo-Kantianism, which arose out of the rejection of foundationalism, go back to three central figures of the early nineteenth century: Fries, Herbart, and Beneke. The movement became self-conscious only in the 1860s in the work of Fischer, Zeller, Bona Meyer, Liebmann, and Lange. There were three crises crucial for the development of neo-Kantianism: the identity crisis of philosophy, the materialism controversy, and the challenge of pessimism. Neo-Kantianism went into decline after the First World War, partly because of its disastrous support for the war, partly because the war undermined its belief in social and political progress.
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