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date: 13 July 2020

Abstract and Keywords

The chapter provides an introductory survey of the major schools and thinkers of neo-Kantianism from the 1790s to 1920s. The beginnings of neo-Kantianism, which arose out of the rejection of foundationalism, go back to three central figures of the early nineteenth century: Fries, Herbart, and Beneke. The movement became self-conscious only in the 1860s in the work of Fischer, Zeller, Bona Meyer, Liebmann, and Lange. There were three crises crucial for the development of neo-Kantianism: the identity crisis of philosophy, the materialism controversy, and the challenge of pessimism. Neo-Kantianism went into decline after the First World War, partly because of its disastrous support for the war, partly because the war undermined its belief in social and political progress.

Keywords: psychologism, foundationalism, materialism, pessimism, neo-Kantianism

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