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date: 16 July 2020

Abstract and Keywords

The Nordic systems of industrial relations are distinguished by high rates of organization among workers and employers, centralized bargaining coordination, low wage dispersion, and a strong company tier of negotiations and participation. Universal, income-related, and relatively generous income protection schemes and state-funded educational systems are other characteristics of the Nordic labour market models. Over the last decades, Nordic labour and employment relations have adapted to internal and external challenges. More decentralized bargaining coordination at sector level and more stringent requirements for job-seeking activity have been introduced, partially followed by reduced compensation rates in labour market related benefits. The countries with the strongest trade unions have seen declining union membership, and increased labour migration has put wage floors and collective agreements under pressure in some sectors.

Keywords: centralized coordination of wage setting, universal income security, flexicurity, Nordic models, social democratic capitalism

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