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date: 08 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter considers how state regulation of migration and citizenship determines territorial and membership boundaries. I argue that borders as control sites of migration flows are increasingly folded into the territory as well as propelled outwards beyond the states’ traditional confines. Mobility rights and opportunities depend to a significant extent on citizenship status. However, in OECD democracies, distinctions based on citizenship and residence have become increasingly blurred through the strengthening of the rights of long-term residents, of extraterritorial citizenship, and toleration of dual citizenship. The states’ transformation into immigration as well as emigration states is not only a demographic fact, but also a politically contested phenomenon. The European Union experiment with EU-internal free movement and open borders additionally challenges the coordination between states and their membership regimes. I suggest that the biggest challenge for future research is how to combine migration and mobility perspectives in a coherent analytical framework.

Keywords: migration, citizenship, boundaries, states, freedom, OECD countries, mobility, geography, nation-building, diasporas

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