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date: 25 May 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter utilizes labor market change, in particular the objective of increasing female labor market participation and change in gender-equality decision-making machinery, to provide the lens through which it is possible to identify progress in, and barriers to, transformations of the state in a gender equality/woman friendly direction. It concludes that core OECD states can be characterized as gender equality awareness states, some more so than others, but the movement to gender equality states is constrained by failure to address broader structures of inequality. The state has been pervasive, and, at some times and in some locations, dominant, in changing gender relations, but it has always been subject to the dominant political orientation, including the gender representativeness of parliaments and the pressure, or lack thereof, from civil society, in particular the equality-oriented women’s movement. These factors largely explain variation in the institutionalization of equality structures and outcomes.

Keywords: state, OECD countries, gender relations, gender discrimination, gender-based violence, employment, work-family reconciliation, gender mainstreaming, women, gender inequality

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