- The Oxford Handbook of Transformations of the State
- List of Figures and Tables
- About the Contributors
- Introduction: Transformations of the State
- Changing Perspectives on the State
- Varieties of State Experience
- The Layered State: Pathways and Patterns of Modern Nation State Building
- The Emergence of the New World States
- State Formation and Transformation in Africa and Asia: The Third Phase of State Expansion
- State Theory: Four Analytical Traditions
- Limited Statehood: A Critical Perspective
- State Transformations in Comparative Perspective
- Internationalization and the State: Sovereignty as the External Side of Modern Statehood
- State Transformations among the Affluent Democracies
- Welfare State Transformation: Convergence and the Rise of the Supply-Side Model
- The State and Gender Equality: From Patriarchal to Women-Friendly State?
- From the Positive to the Regulatory State: A Transformation in the Machinery of Governance?
- Migration and the Porous Boundaries of Democratic States
- Plurinational States
- The Changing Architecture of the National Security State
- Transformations of the Democratic State
- The Peculiarities of Post-Communist State Development: Institutional Consolidation and Elite Competition
- The Transformation of the State in Eastern Europe
- Resources as Constraints? Natural Resource Wealth and the Possibility of Developmental States in the Former Soviet Union
- The Transformation of the Russian State
- China: Economic Liberalization, Adaptive Informal Institutions, and Party-State Resilience
- States in the Global South: Transformations, Trends, and Diversity
- Conclusion: States Transforming
- Name Index
- Index of Subjects
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter utilizes labor market change, in particular the objective of increasing female labor market participation and change in gender-equality decision-making machinery, to provide the lens through which it is possible to identify progress in, and barriers to, transformations of the state in a gender equality/woman friendly direction. It concludes that core OECD states can be characterized as gender equality awareness states, some more so than others, but the movement to gender equality states is constrained by failure to address broader structures of inequality. The state has been pervasive, and, at some times and in some locations, dominant, in changing gender relations, but it has always been subject to the dominant political orientation, including the gender representativeness of parliaments and the pressure, or lack thereof, from civil society, in particular the equality-oriented women’s movement. These factors largely explain variation in the institutionalization of equality structures and outcomes.
Julia S. O'Connor is Professor of Social Policy at the School of Criminology, Politics and Social Policy, and Faculty Associate in the Institute for Research in Social Sciences (IRiSS), both University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, UK.
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