Abstract and Keywords
Linguistic expressions refer to things, but so do people when they perform acts of reference using linguistic expressions. This chapter is concerned with the latter, referred to here as speech act reference. After distinguishing between linguistic reference and speech act reference, two issues are raised. First, what is the order of priority between linguistic reference and speech act reference? The argument is made that neither can be conceptually or explanatorily prior to the other. Linguistic reference and speech act reference are complementary elements in a wider phenomenon of reference in language. Second, what is the relationship between acts of reference and whole illocutionary acts? Here, it is argued that acts of reference can only occur as components of complete illocutionary acts with satisfaction conditions, such as assertions, questions, and orders.
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