Abstract and Keywords
This chapter examines changes in criminal law over the last decades, paying particular attention to corporate criminal liability (CCL). After outlining the main features of CCL with a focus on corporations, it traces the emergence and expansion of CCL in various countries such as England and the United States and the adaption of the concept of corporate criminal liability by other countries. It then looks at the opposition of some countries to CCL, including Germany, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, and Latvia. The chapter also discusses issues of efficiency, fairness, and the transferability of criminal law (and its premises) onto collectives, along with the main differences between existing models of CCL. Finally, it considers the present and the future of criminal law based on the development of CCL, with emphasis on conflict rather than the offender and the domination of preventive aspects.
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