- Environmental History of the Middle East and North Africa
- Fiscal Crisis and Structural Change in the Late Ottoman Economy
- Foundations of Religious Reform (Islah) and Cultural Revival (Nahda)
- Constitutional Revolutions and State Formations in Comparison: Iran and Turkey
- The First World War and its Legacy in the Middle East
- The Levant Mandates
- The Emergence of Nationalism
- The Matter of Sectarianism
- Kemalism and Beyond
- Fascism in the Middle East and North Africa
- Communism in the Middle East and North Africa: From Comintern Parties to Marxist-Leninist Movements
- A War over the People: The Algerian War of Independence, 1954–1962
- Dodging the Peril of Peace: Israel and the Arabs in the Aftermath of the June 1967 War
- Reliving Tragedies as Historical Reawakenings: Modern Iran and Its Revolutions
- Capital, Labor, and State: Rethinking the Political Economy of Oil in the Gulf
- Media as Method in the Age of Revolution: The Rise of Neoliberal Authoritarianism
- Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency in the Neoliberal Age
- W(h)ither Arabian Peninsula Studies?
- Syria’s Economic History: Bumpy Road from Economic Nationalism to Neoliberalism
- The Fragmentation of Gender in Post-Invasion Iraq
- Sextarianism: Notes on Studying the Lebanese State
- Contemporary Israel/Palestine
- Toward New Approaches to the Anthropology of Islamic Movements: Women’s Islamic Activism and the Question of Subjectivity
- The Arab Uprisings of 2011 in Historical Perspective
- Political Movements in Bahrain Across the Long Twentieth Century (1900–2015)
- Before the Spring: Shifting Patterns of Protest in Rural Egypt
- Cascading Liberation and Renewal—Tunisia in History
- Arab Youth: Disruptive Generation of the Twenty-first Century?
- The Yemeni Uprising: A Product of Twenty Years of Grassroots Mobilization
- The “New Turkey” At Home and Abroad
- The Crisis of Sovereignty, Ruptured Domination, and the Kurdish Quest for Democratic Self-Government in Syria
- After Gaddafi: Libya’s Path to Collapse
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter explores the evolution of gender and women’s rights struggles in Iraq since the establishment of the Personal Status Code in 1959 and shed light on the ethnosectarian fragmentation of women’s legal rights in post-invasion Iraq. The chapter argues that in order to explore women’s rights and conditions of lives in Iraq it is essential to explore the evolution of women’s rights and gender issues historically and through a complex lens of analysis rather than applying a predefined argument involving an undifferentiated “Islam” or age-old gender-based violence. It seeks to show that gender issues have been entangled with issues of nationhood, religion, and with the nature of the political regime since the very foundation of the Iraqi Republic in 1958. First, the chapter examines the debates and mobilizations around women’s legal rights in Iraq. Secondly, it highlights the development of political, economic, and military violence since the 1980s and its impact on gender norms and relations. Finally, it analyzes the specific context of ethnosectarian fragmentation in which Iraqi women have lived and mobilized since 2003.
Rutgers University, Newark.
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