- Environmental History of the Middle East and North Africa
- Fiscal Crisis and Structural Change in the Late Ottoman Economy
- Foundations of Religious Reform (Islah) and Cultural Revival (Nahda)
- Constitutional Revolutions and State Formations in Comparison: Iran and Turkey
- The First World War and its Legacy in the Middle East
- The Levant Mandates
- The Emergence of Nationalism
- The Matter of Sectarianism
- Kemalism and Beyond
- Fascism in the Middle East and North Africa
- A War over the People: The Algerian War of Independence, 1954–1962
- Dodging the Peril of Peace: Israel and the Arabs in the Aftermath of the June 1967 War
- Reliving Tragedies as Historical Reawakenings: Modern Iran and Its Revolutions
- Capital, Labor, and State: Rethinking the Political Economy of Oil in the Gulf
- Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency in the Neoliberal Age
- W(h)ither Arabian Peninsula Studies?
- Syria’s Economic History: Bumpy Road from Economic Nationalism to Neoliberalism
- The Fragmentation of Gender in Post-Invasion Iraq
- Sextarianism: Notes on Studying the Lebanese State
- Contemporary Israel/Palestine
- Toward New Approaches to the Anthropology of Islamic Movements: Women’s Islamic Activism and the Question of Subjectivity
- The Arab Uprisings of 2011 in Historical Perspective
- Political Movements in Bahrain Across the Long Twentieth Century (1900–2015)
- Before the Spring: Shifting Patterns of Protest in Rural Egypt
- Cascading Liberation and Renewal—Tunisia in History
- Arab Youth: Disruptive Generation of the Twenty-first Century?
- The Yemeni Uprising: A Product of Twenty Years of Grassroots Mobilization
- The “New Turkey” At Home and Abroad
- The Crisis of Sovereignty, Ruptured Domination, and the Kurdish Quest for Democratic Self-Government in Syria
- After Gaddafi: Libya’s Path to Collapse
Abstract and Keywords
The course of the 2011 Libyan revolution, international intervention, and the regime’s application of armed force created new forms of sub-state affiliation and mobilization. International and regional intervention has exacerbated Libya’s chaos and deepened its fault lines. The civil war in 2014 was the culmination of these fissures and international pressures but conflicts since then by the myriad armed groups have become increasingly predatory—a scramble for the country’s oil wealth and the capture of state institutions. Libya’s conflicts are directly tied to the pathologies of the rentier oil state under Gaddafi and the failure of post-2011 distributive policies, along with endemic corruption and cronyism. Meanwhile, Western engagement is focused on parochial aims such as counterterrorism and stemming irregular migration. For the foreseeable future, Libya is likely to suffer from truncated sovereignty, a fractured national identity, regional meddling, simmering armed conflict, and hyper-localized politics.
Senior Fellow, Middle East Program, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
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