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date: 20 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

George Spencer Brown is a British mathematician and logician, whose book Laws of Form (1969) tackles the very foundation of development of knowledge. An abstract and bold ‘calculus of indications’, Laws of Form was even praised by Bertrand Russell. It presents a calculus that seeks to clarify the laws governing the formation of forms. This chapter examines Spencer Brown’s form calculus and its implications for the study of organizations. After providing an overview of mathematics as a cognition theory, it describes some basic main points of Spencer Brown’s form calculus and its implications for process philosophy. It then discusses the two ‘arithmetic axioms’ developed by Spencer Brown in Laws of Form: the law of calling and the law of crossing. Finally, it shows how the calculus can help elucidate self-reference and paradoxes.

Keywords: George Spencer Brown, Laws of Form, form calculus, forms, mathematics, process philosophy, law of calling, law of crossing, self-reference, paradoxes

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