- The Oxford Handbook of Process Philosophy and Organization Studies
- List of Illustrations
- About the Contributors
- Process is How Process Does
- Laozi’s <i>Daodejing</i> (6th Century BC)
- Heraclitus (540–480 BC)
- Confucius (551–479 BC)
- <i>Zhuangzi</i> (369 BC)
- Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677)
- Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716)
- Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855)
- Wilhelm Dilthey (1833–1911)
- Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914)
- William James (1842–1910)
- Gabriel Tarde (1843–1904)
- Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)
- Henri Bergson (1859–1941)
- John Dewey (1859–1952)
- Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947)
- George Herbert Mead (1863–1931)
- Nishida Kitarō (1870–1945)
- Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1952)
- Martin Heidegger (1889–1976)
- Mikhail Bakhtin (1895–1975)
- Jacques-Marie-Èmile Lacan (1901–1981)
- Gregory Bateson (1904–1980)
- Hannah Arendt (1906–1975)
- Simone De Beauvoir (1908–1986)
- Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908–1961)
- Arne Naess (1912–2009)
- Paul Ricoeur (1913–2005)
- Harold Garfinkel (1917–2011)
- George Spencer-Brown (1923b)
- Gilles Deleuze (1925–1995)
- Michel Foucault (1926–1984)
- Luce Irigaray (1930b)
- Michel Serres (1930b)
- Peter Sloterdijk (1947b)
- Process and Reality
Abstract and Keywords
At the age of fourteen, Ludwig Wittgenstein was exposed to the formative influence of Søren Kierkegaard, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Leo Tolstoy, and Arthur Schopenhauer. Two of his important works were Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, the only book published during his lifetime, and Philosophical Investigations. This chapter examines Wittgenstein’s philosophy, with an emphasis on his views about doubt, silence, and metaphysics, as well as his theory of change and his account of language games. It also considers Wittgenstein’s argument that forms of life are modes of organization in which our actions agree with one another. Finally, it discusses the implications of Wittgenstein’s work for organization studies, and especially organizational change.
Robert Richardson, Cooper Union, New York, USA.
Matt Statler, New York University, Stern, New York, USA.
Saku Mantere, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
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