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date: 25 November 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Twelfth-century writers viewed the sacraments as salvific mediations of the saving power of Jesus Christ and of the mysteries of his human life, communicated to believers by the active power of the Holy Spirit, who joined believers to Christ in and through the sacraments. Precisely as conjoined to Christ by the Spirit through the sacraments, believers constituted the church. Thus, twelfth-century theologians conceived of the sacraments within a highly integrated, organic, and dynamic conception of Christian existence. Arguably, the deep theological intuition operative here is that the sacraments mediate a divine action directed toward humanity that reaches its terminus, not when grace is communicated to individual believers, but rather when by that communication individual humans are drawn together more deeply and integrated more fully into the mysterious union of Christ and his church.

Keywords: Baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, marriage, anointing, holy orders, Holy Spirit, Jesus Christ, church, grace

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