- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Contributors
- Theorizing Gender-and-Organization: Changing Times…Changing Theories?
- Disturbing Thoughts and Gendered Practices: A Discursive Review of Feminist Organizational Analysis
- Organizations as Symbolic Gendered Orders
- Was will der Mann?
- Feminism, Post-Feminism, and Emerging Femininities in Entrepreneurship
- ‘Meaning That Matters’: An Organizational Communication Perspective on Gender, Discourse, and Materiality
- Female Advantage: Revisited
- The Rocky Climb: Women’s Advancement in Management
- Leadership: A Matter of Gender?
- Negative Intra-Gender Relations between Women: Friendship, Competition, and Female Misogyny
- Sex, Gender, and Leadership: What Do Four Decades of Research Tell Us?
- Gendered Constructions of Merit and Impression Management within Professional Service Firms
- Gender and Careers: Obstacles and Opportunities
- The Glass Cliff: Examining Why Women Occupy Leadership Positions in Precarious Circumstances
- Power and Resistance in Gender Equality Strategies: Comparing Quotas and Small Wins
- Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
- Organizational Culture, Work Investments, and the Careers of Men: Disadvantages to Women?
- Challenging Gender Boundaries: Pressures and Constraints on Women in Non-Traditional Occupations
- Contextualizing Men, Masculinities, Leadership, and Management: Gender/Intersectionalities, Local/Transnational, Embodied/Virtual, Theory/Practice
- Masculinities in Management: Hidden, Invisible, and Persistent
- Masculinity and Sexuality at Work: Incorporating Gay and Bisexual Men’s Perspectives
- Doing Gender Differently: Men in Caring Occupations
- Masculinity in the Financial Sector
- Masculinities in Multinationals
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews four decades of research on the linkages among sex, gender, and leadership by examining status, preferences, stereotypes, attitudes, behaviours, and effectiveness associated with the leader role in relation to gender stereotypes and roles. First, it reviews women’s status over recent decades. Second, it considers preferences for male versus female leaders in general. Third, it compares leader stereotypes with gender stereotypes and examines whether leader stereotypes have changed over time. Fourth, it reviews attitudes towards female leaders. Fifth, it investigates whether (and if so, how) female and male managers differ in their behaviour and overall effectiveness as leaders. Finally, it considers implications for future theory, research, and practice.
Gary N. Powell, PhD, is Professor of Management at the University of Connecticut. He is author of Women and Men in Management (fourth edition), editor of the Handbook of Gender and Work, and author of Managing a Diverse Workforce: Learning Activities (third edition).
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