- The Oxford Handbook of Skills and Training
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Skills and Training: Multiple Targets, Shifting Terrain
- Disciplinary Perspectives on Skill
- Skill Builders and the Evolution of National Vocational Training Systems
- The Changing Meaning of Skill: Still Contested, Still Important
- A New Social Construction of Skill
- Measuring Job Content: Skills, Technology, and Management Practices
- Accreditation and Assessment in Vocational Education and Training
- Education and Qualifications as Skills
- Pre-Employment Skill Formation in Australia and Germany
- Skill Development in Middle-level Occupations: The Role of Apprenticeship Training
- What Is Expected of Higher Education Graduates in the Twenty-first Century?
- Employer-Led In-Work Training and Skill Formation: The Challenges of Multi-Varied and Contingent Phenomena
- Unions, the Skills Agenda, and Workforce Development
- A Working Lifetime of Skill and Training Needs
- Skill Under-utilization
- Business Strategies and Skills
- Measuring Skills Stock, Job Skills, and Skills Mismatch
- The Individual Benefits of Investing in Skills
- The Economic and Social Benefits of Skills
- Theorizing Skill Formation in the Global Economy
- Different National Skill Systems
- Skill Ecosystems
- Employment Systems, Skills, and Knowledge
- Skill Demands and Developments in the Advanced Economies
- Approaches to Skills in the Asian Developmental States
- Emerging Economic Powers: The Transformation of the Skills Systems in China and India
- Projecting the Impact of Information Technology on Work and Skills in the 2030s
- International Skill Flows and Migration
- Professional Skills: Impact of Comparative Political Economy
- Skills and Training for the Older Population: Training the New Work Generation
- Rethinking Skills Development: Moving Beyond Competency-Based Training
- Who Pays for Skills?: Differing Perspectives on Who Should Pay and Why
- Current Challenges: Policy Lessons and Implications
- Author Index
Abstract and Keywords
While there are diverse perspectives on skills and training, the divergence in disciplinary outlooks is not as great as it once may have been. Important new knowledge has identified the nature and importance of demand side factors like skill utilisation and the social determinants of skill development and outcomes. Despite this analytical flourishing, the reality of who pays for skills is becoming more narrowly defined as a ‘personal benefit’, the cost burden of which is shifting from businesses and nation states to individuals. The chapter finishes by noting while huge structural shifts in skill demand and supply are intensifying, the outcomes of these developments will depend on how skills are defined and the costs of skill development distributed. These will be settled at national and sectoral/regional level. Consequently, while the forces of change appear to be converging around the globe, the diversity in skill systems is set to continue – but in different forms.
John Buchanan is Professor in Working Life and currently Chair of Business Analytics and Principal Advisor (Research Impact) at the University of Sydney Business School. Up to 2014 he was Director of the Workplace Research Centre. His key domains of expertise are in the areas of wage determination, workforce development, health workforce, and the work-health nexus. His current role is principally concerned with deepening the capacity for high impact research and education in the field of data science. He is also helping build capacity for research and education activity of the Business School to assist in the transformation of health and wellbeing in Western Sydney. His most recent co-edited book is Inclusive Growth in Australia: Social Policy as Economic Investment (2013).
David Finegold is Distinguished Professor at Rutgers University and is the founding Chief Academic Officer for American Honors. He is a leading international expert on skill development systems and their relationship to the changing world of work and economic performance.
Ken Mayhew is Emeritus Professor of Education and Economic Performance, at Oxford University, Emeritus Fellow in Economics at Pembroke College Oxford, Extraordinary Professor at Maastricht University, and a member of the Armed Forces Pay Review Body. He was founding director of SKOPE, an ESRC research centre on skills, knowledge, and organizational performance. He has published widely in labour economics and policy analysis, and advised many private and public sector organizations at home and abroad.
Chris Warhurst PhD is Professor and Director of the Institute for Employment Research at the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom, a Trustee of the Tavistock Institute in London, and a Research Associate of SKOPE at Oxford University. He has published a number of books and articles on skills, including, with colleagues, The Skills that Matter (Palgrave, 2004) and Are Bad Jobs Inevitable? (Palgrave, 2012). He has been expert advisor on skills policy to the UK, Scottish, and Australian governments, and an international expert advisor to the OECD’s LEED programme.
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