- The Oxford Handbook of Skills and Training
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Skills and Training: Multiple Targets, Shifting Terrain
- Disciplinary Perspectives on Skill
- Skill Builders and the Evolution of National Vocational Training Systems
- The Changing Meaning of Skill: Still Contested, Still Important
- A New Social Construction of Skill
- Measuring Job Content: Skills, Technology, and Management Practices
- Accreditation and Assessment in Vocational Education and Training
- Education and Qualifications as Skills
- Pre-Employment Skill Formation in Australia and Germany
- Skill Development in Middle-level Occupations: The Role of Apprenticeship Training
- What Is Expected of Higher Education Graduates in the Twenty-first Century?
- Employer-Led In-Work Training and Skill Formation: The Challenges of Multi-Varied and Contingent Phenomena
- Unions, the Skills Agenda, and Workforce Development
- A Working Lifetime of Skill and Training Needs
- Skill Under-utilization
- Business Strategies and Skills
- Measuring Skills Stock, Job Skills, and Skills Mismatch
- The Individual Benefits of Investing in Skills
- The Economic and Social Benefits of Skills
- Theorizing Skill Formation in the Global Economy
- Different National Skill Systems
- Skill Ecosystems
- Employment Systems, Skills, and Knowledge
- Skill Demands and Developments in the Advanced Economies
- Approaches to Skills in the Asian Developmental States
- Emerging Economic Powers: The Transformation of the Skills Systems in China and India
- Projecting the Impact of Information Technology on Work and Skills in the 2030s
- International Skill Flows and Migration
- Professional Skills: Impact of Comparative Political Economy
- Skills and Training for the Older Population: Training the New Work Generation
- Rethinking Skills Development: Moving Beyond Competency-Based Training
- Who Pays for Skills?: Differing Perspectives on Who Should Pay and Why
- Current Challenges: Policy Lessons and Implications
- Author Index
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter examines skill formation organized by employers in the workplace. Its starting point is that all types of work involve knowledge and skill and, therefore, all workplaces are potential learning environments. The chapter discusses developments in workplace learning theory as well as the international empirical evidence on employer attitudes to and investment in in-work training. Illustrations from case study research are provided. It argues that workplace learning is contingent on the level of interaction of individuals with the way work is organized and managed, the nature of the employment contract including reward and incentive structures, the level of discretion employees have to determine how they work, and the extent to which employees are involved in decision making. The chapter concludes with recommendations for policy and practice.
Lorna Unwin PhD is Professor Emerita (Vocational Education) and Honorary Professor in the LLAKES Research Centre, UCL Institute of Education, University College London in the United Kingdom. She has published many articles and books on skill formation, including, with colleagues, Contemporary Apprenticeship: International Perspectives on an Evolving Model of Learning (Routledge 2013). She advises the UK government and regional bodies and the OECD.
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