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date: 28 September 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This article provides an overview of culture in Asia. Culture is defined as shared meaning interpreted in institutions in patterns that are best analysed through a complex adaptive systems framework. The understanding of the variety of Asian cultures begins with certain socio-economic givens, such as level of development. Data are then presented to reveal variations between societies in values, social axioms, and patterns of socializing. Clusters of countries are proposed, namely the Advanced Cities, Japan, the Advanced North-East, the Emerging South-East, and the Post-Socialist. The effects of culture on organizations are introduced via analysis of vertical order, horizontal order, and differences in rationale. This article contributes to the literature on business systems and varieties of capitalism as well as international management.

Keywords: culture, Asia, business systems, varieties of capitalism, institutions, socio-economics, values, social axioms, rationale

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