Abstract and Keywords
TIMSS and PISA are two high-profile international surveys evaluating the achievement of students in mathematics or mathematical literacy, among other subjects. Surveys such as these are of increasing importance to policy-makers in the UK and further afield, allowing participants to measure their national achievement at a given point in time and over time, to explore factors related to that achievement, and to benchmark their achievement against that of other countries. This chapter looks at what can, or cannot, be learned from these surveys and explores issues related to apparently different findings from the two surveys of mathematical achievement/literacy within a country.
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