Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 04 December 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Nicaea II in 787 was ‘the council of the Icon’. Iconomachia, the battle against images, stemmed from the conviction that the veneration of images is doctrinally intolerable. Iconophobia became a matter of imperial policy. There were four great Iconophile theologians: Germanus of Constantinople argued that whether or not one can venerate images is not a matter to be tackled in a purely theoretical way: historically, God has become Incarnate in Christ, and the Church venerates images of him. John of Damascus wrote in defence of images and icons on the grounds of the generally imagistic character of biblical revelation, and distinguished between veneration and worship: through veneration of icons, honour is done to God. The third great iconophile, Theodore of Studios defended the teaching of Nicaea II, observing that worship passes from the image to its prototype. Nicephorus of Constantinople showed the extent to which iconology is inseparable from Christology.

Keywords: icons, iconophiles, iconophobia, iconomachia, veneration, worship, Nicaea II

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.